Chandrayaan-2 lander Vikram still remains out of contact four days after the probe went silent during its attempt to land on the Moon
Contact with the Chandrayaan-2 lander Vikram was lost on Saturday when it was attempting a soft landing on the surface of the Moon (PTI photo)

Indian Space Research Organization’s efforts to restore relations with Vikram Lander have not been successful after 3 days (ISRO) of its supposedly difficult landing on the lunar surface. On September 7, the agency lost communication with the spacecraft’s Vikram Lander module while attempting to land softly on the lunar surface. Meanwhile, ISRO was successful in locating Vikram Lander on the lunar surface through the spacecraft’s orbiter module. This was done using the onboard cameras of Chandrayaan 2 orbiter, taking a thermal image of Vikram Lander. Giving information about the position of Vikram Lander, ISRO had informed that it is a piece, but there is no definite meaning whether it should work or not.

Are there any hopes to restore communication with the Vikram Lander of Chandrayaan 2?

When it comes to re-establishing a connection with the lander the time has passed since no wire is connected to the possibility of re-communication with the lander. On the one hand, the chances of establishing contacts are not going down again over time. But, on the other hand, there is a time limit for this. The space agency is to succeed in the next 10 days, which is until September 21.

Why the agency has to re-establish the connection to Vikram Lander by September 21?

If we keep in mind the fact that Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover were only designed to function for 1 lunar day, then it is clear why India’s space agency ISRO had communication for it before September 21 Will has to be installed. Also, the Moon will enter a lunar night after that. A single lunar day or night is equal to 14 full days on Earth. Also, in the south polar region of the Moon which is already lacking in light, lunar night temperatures are very harsh and can fall to as low as -200 ° C. Devices aboard a Vikram lander may suffer permanent damage because they were not designed to withstand that type of low temperature. Therefore, one can only speculate that if ISRO does not establish a connection in the next two weeks, they will have to give up all hope after that.

What are the methods and procedure being used by ISRO to establish Communication with Vikram Lander of Chandrayaan 2?

Distant objects can possibly communicate only through electromagnetic waves. In the case of space communication, frequencies in the S-band known as microwaves and L waves known as radio waves of the electromagnetic spectrum are commonly used. At the moment, the agency is still unaware of the reason for the loss of communication.

Since contact with Vikram was lost while it was still in flight, experts speculate a power failure to be a possible reason. But the fact that the Vibrant lander would hit the lunar surface hard and at speed much greater than needed for a safe landing, the amount of damage received is still an issue.

The lander module, ‘Vikram’, was designed to communicate with both the ground station and the orbiter. The agency is attempting to restore contact using both the ground station and the orbiter.

What are the possible factors that can cause hindrance in re-establishing the connection?

The lander had an antenna to transmit signals. The most important factor is the current position of the antenna. It should have been free from any obstructions to provide direct and hassle-free communication. The current status of the antenna matters because if it was standing and free of obstruction, it could have a full field scan to receive the signal.

The best chance of ISRO to establish contact with Vikram Lander is its orbiter. This module of Chandrayaan 2 can make several revolutions of the Moon every day, while Vikram is trying to send a signal to the module every time it crosses it.

Incidents of losing communication and then reestablishing it with space probes are not new. But things are far more comfortable if the object is in orbit, or at least in a good working condition.

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